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Chapter 5 References and Citations

 Chapter 5 References and Citations 

Academic writing requires that you write about a subject knowledgeably and accurately To find important information, you need to read books, magazines journal articles..-etc .You must know how to borrow the author's words without plagiarizing (using someone else's ideas as your own). So using quotations, paraphrases .and summaries are important tools you have to learn to use .In this last chapter .you will learn how to .use these and also how to write your reference list at the end of the research. 


To insert quotations smoothly into a paragraph, you have to use various "reporting" verbs and phrases and to punctuate them correctly Some of the more common verbs used to introduce a quotation that has been borrowed arc listed below; 

As Douglas (1994) said 

As reported, 

As stated, 

AS mentioned, 

As maintained, 

As declared, 

As wrote, 

You may also use the phrase "according" to According to... - (1999), the number of world refugees now exceeds 11 million,


Notice

• You have to place comma after the reporting phrase, and put quotation marks before and after the actual word quoted Capitalized the first word of the quotation as well as of such sentence 


• The phrase according to "is followed or preceded by a by a Complete sentence Do not use quotation marks. 


Citations within the text: There are several possible ways to document your citations within the text .The method suggested here has been recommended by APA (The American Psychological Association) since 199.4.Following arc some examples of how to document citations while writing. Usually, you will need to give the author's last name, publication date and a page number. 


Example: (1) Rogers (1994) claims that.. 

• If you have used material from more than one work by the same author, you must indicate which book the information is from. You can give either a shortened title of the work or the publication date. 

• Rogers (language, 1990), claims that. . 

• Rogers(!990), Claims that.. 

• If you  have two authors, you mention the family name of the two authors. 


Example (2): As (Hlewood & Rogers, 1989) Claimed, reading is enhanced by.. .

• If you have a book with several authors, the first time you mention the work you write the family name of the three authors. 


Example: Wasserstein, Zapputla, Rosen, Gersiman, and Rock (1994) found that.. 

The next time you take something from the book, you put the family name of the first author &. et. al Wasserstein, et al, found. . 

• If two or more writers (in different books) agreed or disagreed about an idea, arrange the names by the family name alphabetically and use; to divide them, 


Example: Several Studies ( Balda, 1980 ; Kamil, 1998 ; pepperbery, 1990) agreed that.. 

* To document something quoted verbatim (usually not more than three lines), put the quoted words between “." and also put the authors family name, the publication date and the page number.


 Example: If you quote more than three or four lines, you usually put the family name of the author, the year of publication and the page. You also use a smaller font and indent on the right and left. 


The dangers of our population will increase by the year 2100 unless the rate of growth is reduced. The world's food production cannot meet the needs of 11 billion people, so famine is an inevitable consequence. (Chek Buss, 1981, P.332) 



Reference list: The reference list comes at the end of the thesis or dissertations. You must include only the sources that were used in the research. 


In APA (American Psychological Association) style references are listed alphabetically. If you refer to two different works by the same author arrange them in the reference list according to the year of publication. Also give the author's sur name once, 


Example: Christenson, L. 1999, Educational Research, London, Longman, 2000, Students Motivation in Classroom, U.S. University of California press. The reference list must be double- spaced, and entries should sum with paragraph indent; then entries will be typeset with hanging indents. 


Example: Blum, R., & Arter, J. (1996). A handbook for student performance assessment, San Francisce : Jossey - Bass. 


In the next section, we will explain how to deal with entries from books, Journals, Periodicals published annually, edited books, encyclopedia or dictionaries, Proceedings of meetings and symposia doctoral dissertations and master's theses, and on-line information.


1-Books : 

One author 

Mitchell, T.R. (1987) People in organization An introduction lo organizational behavior. New your: Me Graw Hill. 


More than one author: Cone J.D., & Foster, S.L (1993). Teacher burout. Washington D.C: American psychological Association. 


Edited books : Gibbs, J.T, & Huang, L.N. (Eds.). (1991), Children or color : Psychological interventions with minority youth. San Francisco. Jassey Bass. 


2- Periodicals : 

* Journal article, one author: 

Bekerian, D.A. (1993). In search of the typical eyewitness. American Psychologisit, 48, 574- 576. • Journal article, two authors: Kaminski, R., & palmer's, F (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting psychology journal : Practice and Research, 45(2), ) 0-36 . 


Journal article, more than two author ( six authors) 

Kneip, R.C, Delamater, A.M., Ismond, T., Milford, C, Salvia, L., & Schwartz, D. (1993). Self- and spouse ratings of anger and hostility as predictors of coronary heart disease. Health psychology, 12, 301-307.



Periodical published annually Fiske, ST. ( 1993). Social cognition and social perception. Annual Review of Psychology, 44,155-194. 


3- Encyclopedia or dictionary: Sadie, s. (Ed) (1980). The new Grave dictionary of music and musicians (6 ed., Vols. 1-20). London: Macmillan. 


Bergmann, P.G. (1993). Relativity. In the, new encyclopedia Britanica (Vol. 26, pp.501-508) Chicago: Encyclopedia Britanica, 


4-Report available from the Educational Resources information Center (ERIC): Mead, JV, (1992), Booking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers brine; with them (Report No, NCTIL-RP-92-4). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. IID 346082). 


5- Proceedings of Meetings and Symposia : Deci, E,L,, &Ryan, R.M. (1991). .A motivational approach to self : Integration in Personality. In R- Dienstbier (Ed), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation : Vol. 38 . Perspectives on Motivation (pp. 237-288). Lincoln : University of Nebraska press. 


NB : Capitalize the name of the symposium, which is a proper name.


6- Doctoral Dissertation and Master's these: Bower, D.L. (1993), Employee assistant programs supervisory referrals : Characteristics of referring and no- referring supervisors. Dissertation Abstracts International 54(01), 534D .University Microfilms No. AAD 93- 15947) 


7- Unpublished master's thesis or doctoral dissertation : Almeida, D.M. (1990). Fathers Participation in family work: consequences for fathers stress and father Child relations . Unpublished master's thesis, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. 


8- On-Line Sources: Author, I .then (date). Title of article Name of Periodical [on line], Available: specify path. 


Example ; Meyer, A.S & Bock, K. (1992). The tip-of-the tongue phenomenon; Blocking or partial activation? Memory & Cognition, 20. 715-726. [on line] Abstract from : DIALOG File : psycinfo item : 80-16351.




















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