القائمة الرئيسية

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 Question One: Select the suitable answer:           (30 marks)

1. To assign grades and determine the mastery level, …………… could be used.

(a) pre                                   (b) diagnostic                                 (c) formative                        (d) summative


2. Reading a research title will not help in recognizing …………. Of the study.

(a) extraneous                       (b) mediating                                  (c) dependent                      (d) independent


3. ……… questions compare different variations of some phenomenon.

(a) causal                              (b) descriptive                                 (c) predictive                      (d) correlative


4. Qualitative data can be collected via the use of ……………… .

(a) interviews and observations                                                    (b) questionnaires and tests

(c) tests and observation                                                                (d) interviews and measures


5. In an experiment, the researcher should ……………..

(a) be personally involved in the process                                      (b) control all the variables involved.

(c) allow the phenomenon to occur naturally                                (d) manipulate a few variables. 


6. A researcher can find good topics to be investigated in the …… part of a study report.

(a) discussion                      (b) recommendations                          (c) suggestions                 (d) limitations


7. In ,,,,,,,, design, factors such as maturation, regression, etc. change the results but could not be accounted for.

(a) one group pretest posttest                                                        (b) pretest posttest control group

(c) one group posttest only                                                             (d) posttest only control group


8. The independent variables specify the type of ………….. tools

(a) diagnosis                        (b) intervention                                   (c) assessment                  (d) measurement


9. Ethnohistorical studies focus mainly on ……….

(a) describing cultural groups status quo                                        (b) longitudinal study of a cultural group                       (c) examining the cultural changes of a group                                (d) comparing cultural groups behaviours.


10. Researchers who base their work on a present theory would try to ……….

(a) discuss the bases of the theory.                                                (b) clarify how the theory works

(c) define the inconsistencies of it                                                  (d) predict reasons for its suitability.


11. In factorial designs, the researcher is allowed to ……………...

(a) investigate the effect of mixing two dependent variables

(b) use two independent variables and one dependent variable

(c) combine two or more independent variables and two dependent ones.

(d) manipulate one independent variable and three dependent variables.


12. The dependent variable of a study is ……………...

(a) Manipulated by the researcher,                                                 (b) considered the influencer of the work.

(c) measured by the study tools.                                                     (d) causing the change in the other variables.


13. Using member checking as a validity check requires the ……….. to review interpretations of the experience.

(a) researcher                        (b) original participant                    (c) sample members            (d) jury members


(14) Kallai, J., and Jacobs, J. W. (2007). Cognitive and affective aspects of thigmotaxis strategy in humans. Behavioral Neuroscience, 121, 2130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7044.121.1.21

(a) results of a comprehensive study.                                           (b) concepts drawn from various studies

(c) continuous speculation of reality.                                            (d) cyclical processing of data.


14. A study title is not closely related to the …………….. of the study.

(a) design                              (b) delimitations                             (c) questions                         (d) procedure


15. The regression discontinuity design depends on the use of ……………..

(a) extreme marks                 (b) cutoff scores                             (c) marks patterns                 (d) average scores 


16. Both ethnological and case studies make good use of ………..

(a) questionnaires                  (b) measures                                  (c) observation                      (d) tests


17. Counter balancing ……….. to ensure sound randomization..

(a) requires replication of the experiment                                  (b) diminishes the effect of sequencing

(c) treats one of the order effects                                                (d) is implemented in all experimental studies.


18. Single case experimental design shares some similarities with …….. design.

(a) one group posttest only                                                        (b) one group pretest posttest

(c) factorial                                                                                 (d) repeated measures


19. The study abstract should include information about the ………. Of the study.

(a) questions                          (b) importance                              (c) results                             (d) recommendations


20. ………….. design requires the reintroduction of the treatment conditions.

(a) A-B-A-B                          (b) changing criterion                   (c) single case                      (d) regression


21. The ………….. design is used when sequencing effects are an integral part of the study.

(a) repeated measure              (b) factorial                                  (c) factorial based on a mixed model

(d) posttest only control group.


22. The changing criterion design is basically focused on ………… domain.

(a) cognitive                          (b) psychomotor                          (c) affective                          (d) all of them


23. The main reason researchers write an introduction part is to …………...

(a) provide a good review of literature                                      (b) inform the readers about the topic

(c) mention the results drawn from the pilot study                    (d) direct the attention to the used variables.


24. ………….. case study is often used in exploratory research works.

(a) Instrumental                     (b) Collective                              (c) intrinsic                           (d) all of them


Question Two: Mark the statement (T) or (F):           (50 marks)

1. Whatever is generalized in the title, is made specific in the delimitations.

2. In the qualitative studies, the purpose statement is a declarative one showing relationships. F

3. The ability to control the variables determines the degree of research strength.   T

4. The posttest only design of non-equivalent groups is not to be fully trusted because of lack of randomization.

5. Theory and everyday life are two oppositional sources for research problems.

6. A hypothesis is a n educated guess about the solution of the a certain problem.

7. All designs depending on the existence of one sample group only are considered weak.

8. Quantitative research work is considered a bottom-up approach as it depends on statistical analysis.      top-down

9. The study abstracts are used for writing review of literature and discussion of results.

10. Analysis of variance based on a mixed model is used to determine that the independent variable produced an effect.

11. The etic perspective of an ethnographer requires him to become a participant observer.

12. Studying multiple cases might lead to the effective testing of a theory.

13. The researcher efforts can be replicated by others to ensure the soundness of its results.

14. Phenomenology requires the researcher to obtain a complete description of a specific group experience of a phenomenon.

15. When randomization is difficult to achieve, it is recommended to use single case studies.

16. A study is carried out only to solve educational problems and dilemmas.

17. To carry out a correct ethnographical study, the ethnology perspective is followed by an ethnohistorical account.

18. Baseline is represented by the behavior of the participants after the administration of the experimental condition.

19. In factorial designs based on a mixed model, different participants are randomly assigned to the different levels of one independent variable then make all of them take all the levels of the other independent variable.

20. Statistical analysis is necessary when the baseline data is rather stable.

21. The most popular data collection method in the grounded theory is the open ended interviews.

22. A weak research effort fails to give results proving the positivity of its independent variable.

23. Multiple baseline design can be used when the goal is to increase the amount, accuracy or frequency of a behavior.

24. Any quantitative study is initiated by setting the questions and ends with the hypotheses.

25. The researcher affiliation should be specified at the title page to avoid mixed identities. 


Question Three: Read the following cases and specify the suitable design for studing these topics giving reasons for your choice:           (35 marks)

1. If a researcher is interested in finding out the effect of a remedial writing program on a group of secondary stage students.

2. A researcher wants to study the effect of parental support and teaching strategy on students language proficiency.


Answer the following questions: 

I. Define each of the following:      (30 marks)   

1. Regression-Discontinuity design.

2. Predictive questions.

3. Hypothesis.

4. Covariance.

5. Counterbalance.

6. Extraneous variables.

7. Factorial design.

8. Emic perspective.

9. Collective case study

10. Axial coding.


I. Discuss each of the following:      (40 marks)   

1. Randomization.

2. Internal validity.

3. Regression.

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Select the item that best completes each of the following statements: (20 marks) 

1. ………… allow(s) researchers to investigate how a phenomenon operates and why. 

a. everyday life b. practical issues c. past studies d. theory


2. When stating the purpose of a quantitative study, ………… should be included. 

a. central idea b. method c. variables d. analysis unit


3. "Does change of the interaction pattern in a class lead to an enhancement in students' performance?" is a …………….. question. 

a. causal b. predictive c. suggestive d. descriptive  


4. Qualitative data could never be drawn from ………… 

a. interviews b. audiovisuals c. tests d. observations


5. The researcher should be able to ………………... 

a. make impartial unbiased observations.

b. eliminate the effect of external factors.

c. vary intentionally the dependent variables.

d. implement the study procedures.


6. ………… is considered one of the weak experimental research designs. 

a. one group pre-test post-test b. pre-test post-test control group

c. post-test control group d. mixed model factorial design


7. The researcher's control over ………… variables help in achieving internal validity. 

a. dependent b. independent c. casual d. extraneous


8. The repeated measure design is not favored by researchers as it ………... 

a. requires fewer participants b. has unequal treatment groups 

c. integrates effect sequencing d. is influence by sequencing


9. ………… research is interested in studying the essence of an individual living an experience of a certain phenomenon. 

a. ethnography b. phenomenology

c. case study d. grounded theory


10. In the ……………design, treatment condition is given to different participants in several settings. 

a. A-B-A-B b. independent c. multiple baseline d. regression



III- Compare the following:    (40 marks)  

1. Quantitative and qualitative research regarding statement of questions.

2. Matching and counterbalancing in sampling.

3. Factorial and repeated measure designs.

4. Intrinsic and collective case studies.

5.   Limitations and delimitations.

6. Ethnography and ethnohistory.


Mark the following (√) or (×) and mention why: (15 marks)   

1. The conclusion part of a study gives ideas for future efforts.     ( )

2. Qualitative data analysis is eclectic. ( )

3. The control group only function is to provide a way of comparison. ( )

4. It is recommended to use more than three variables in a factorial design.( )

5. Researchers have to equalize the sample groups used in size. ( )

6. Qualitative studies depend on a narrative report with contextual description.( )

7. Ethno history uncover the general patterns and rules of social behavior.( )

8. In instrumental case studies researchers are interested in how and why a phenomenon operates as it does.

9. The interrupted time series design utilizes a single group of participants.( )

10. Changing criterion design is used in shaping behavior. ( )

1.

2. Grounded theory emerged to allow researchers to establish new perspectives.(   )

3. In quasi experimental studies, researchers are able to fully control their conditions.  

4. The single group of participants design guarantees high validity. ( )

5. Data collection and analysis are consequent stages in quantitative research.( )



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